Marder, Arthur Jacab. New York: A. Knopf, Padfield, Peter. London: Hart-Davis, MacGibbon, Schofield, Brian Beham. London: Batsford, Schurman, Donald M. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Woodward, Ernest Llewellyn. Great Britain and the Germany Navy.
mamatey A History of The Czechoslovak Republic 1918 1948
Oxford: The Clarendon Press, Clark, John. Anglo-German Naval Negotiations, to and to Journal of the Royal United Service Institute , no. Britain and the Tongan Harbours, Historical Studies 15, no. Maurer, John H. Political Science Quarterly : Journal of Conflict Resolution 36, no. McDermott, John. The Journal of Modern History 50, no. Otte, Thomas G. Rood, Harold W.
How the Royal Navy Met the Challenge. Naval Institute Proceedings 84, no. Steinberg, J. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 21 : Sumida, Jon Tetsuro. The Journal of Modern History 51, no. Wringley, David W. Holstein and the Portuguese Colonies Iberian Studies 5, no. Grimm, Aaron R. The Anglo-German Naval Rivalry, Hamilton, Wellington Mark. Gunzenhuser, Max. Die Parisier Friedenskonferenz und die Friedsenvertrge, Literaturbericht und Bibliographie.
Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace. Paris Peace Conference, , and Conference of Ambassadors, Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution, Kesaris, Paul. United States. National Archives and Records Service. Compiled by Sandra Rangel. New York: League to Enforce Peace, Eisenstadt: Amt d. Landesregierung, Landesarchiv, Alliance isralite universelle. La question juive devant la Confrence de la paix.
Paris: Sige die la socit, Allied and Associated Powers Conditions de paix [Conditions of Peace, June 28, ]. Paris, Lettre d'envoi au prsident de la Dlgation allemande de la rponse des Puissances allies et associes [Letter to the President of the German Delegation Covering the Reply to the Allied and Associated Powers]. Films whose main subjects were indefatigability, the willingness to sacrifice and patriotism clearly served a propaganda purpose, which is why they were known as Durchhaltefilme.
In addition, the demand for images of more or less realistic theatres of war had to be met. This meant that the market was quickly flooded with short and long feature films which were released and released. The specialist periodicals recommended these pictures with catchy slogans. The film Bismarck, for example, was given the subtitle patriotisches Gemlde aus Deutschlands Ruhmestagen, and the advertisement for the film reminded readers that Wir Deutsche frchten Gott, und sonst nichts auf der Welt!
In a number of ways, this character played an important role in the rush to war. Not only had his name become immortal because of his heroic death in the war of liberation against Napoleon, but the patriotic songs that he composed had made him even more famous. The melodies of his songs could be heard again everywhere during those first days and weeks of the war. The film, which was named after its hero, had already been shot in , but could now be re-released under very favourable commercial conditions. In the wake of these films followed a new trend, which film publicist Oskar 69 Kalbus saliently called feldgrauer Filmkitsch.
Such patriotic films contained high levels of drama and sentiment. They told stories about a reconciliation between a father and son as a result of the mobilisation Kriegsgetraut ; volunteers reporting to the front Es braust ein Ruf wie Donnerhall ; a French nurse Henny Porten conveying the sad news of the death of a son to his mother Ein Ueberfall in Feindesland ; and stories about brave Red Cross nurses and mothers Das rote Kreuz, Das Vaterland ruft, Deutsche Frauen-Deutsche Treue, Frs Vaterland.
After , the genre all but ceased to exist. Heroic acts, drama and a large dose of patriotism these were the things that the civilian population needed according to the film industry. Hardly surprising, the industry showed itself to be very adept at the commercial exploitation of the war effort.
In view of the difficult circumstances in which the German film industry found itself, this almost went without saying. After some time, the clever moves needed to meet demand for images from the theatres of war in the first days of the war were no longer necessary. Germany had gone to war against its surrounding countries on different fronts.
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The advance of the German army had been successful until the last months of , on both the western and the eastern fronts. The war changed from a war of movement into a war of attrition, a state of affairs that would last until the armistice. Until the outbreak of war, the weekly cinema newscasts were produced by French film companies but, from now on, Germany itself would have to provide film news. In due course, production companies such as Eiko-Film,. Messter, the Nordisk company, and, from onwards, the Bild- und Filmamt would engage in the production of this category of film.
Over a short period of time, a limited number of cameramen, hand-picked and subject to very strict military control, were sent to the front. Subject to permission from the highest military authorities, they were allowed to film at the front and in the occupied territories. Direkte Kampfszenen aufzunehmen, ist noch schwieriger, denn der Kinematograph erfhrt 73 selbstverstndlich nichts vor dem geplanten Angriff. The heavy and unpractical tripod cameras, which were practically unmanoeuvrable in the trenches, made shooting combat situations very dangerous.
The camera and its operator would have to be raised to a position looking out over the parapet in order to be able to film anything at all, and even then, chances were that there was nothing to be observed except plumes of smoke and earth, and a barren landscape shelled to pieces. Also, many front line activities took place at night. There was little else to do for front line cinematographers than to shoot relatively innocent scenes of activities behind the front lines, or of military parades and exercises.
As had been the case with the films compiled from footage of earlier wars, the producers of so-called front footage also assumed that the audiences would be unable to notice the deceit. Military as well as local censorship authorities had the power to halt or seriously slow down the release of 75 such footage in the interest of national security.
This meant that when they were finally shown, such films were often behind on current events. Besides these more or less up-to-date images, heroic films on historic subjects and patriotic drama, the audience also had an increasing need for moments of true distraction. The film programmes that were shown in the cinema after the first year of war show that images of war, even if most of them were products of the imagination, were avoided more and more.
Just like soldiers at the front craved film stories about anything but the war, the tastes of the home audience appeared to be subject to change as well.
Especially after , when the first enthusiasm for the war had subsided, the need for escapism increased. The film industry, which was by now operating at full steam, tried to meet this demand by producing a wide variety of films in the category of light entertain-. The extent of the offer is shown by the rotation schedules of cinema programmes. The smaller theatres would offer new programmes every eight days, while the larger theatres changed their programmes at an even faster rate. The programmes on offer included a collection of various film genres.
Apart from the serious Autorenfilm mentioned earlier, love dramas, detectives, comedies, and satires were programmed. At the same time, a new phenomenon appeared in the film world the film star. Many films, especially love dramas, became nothing more than a vehicle for letting one single actor or actress become the centre of attention of a relatively simple story. Some of them came from the theatre and, after some embarrassment and diffidence, 77 had switched to the young medium. With the film star as its main selling point, the industry flung itself headlong into the production of film serials.
The fact that she herself had become a war widow in certainly played an important role in this. After the war, a period began in which cinema attendance was extremely pop91 ular. This development could also be seen elsewhere in Europe, its cause 82 probably having something to do with the widespread feeling of war fatigue.
If going to the cinema had already been popular on the eve of the First World War, after the war it turned out to be a popular leisure activity, even for the middle classes. Add to this the influence of a change in the architecture of film theatres. More and more film palaces emerged in the centres of big cities; more than the muggy, out-of-theway little venues in the suburbs had done, they began to shape the image of the cinema in the city.
Zoo, Marmorhaus, Alhambra and Primus-Palast were built. These are only three examples of the twenty large film palaces built in Berlin in the early s. In total, however, there were more than three hundred film theatres in Berlin. These developments meant that visiting certain cinemas became an artistically acceptable thing to do. This last development was not only due to the screening context but also to what was actually shown. Aesthetically modern films and indeed any other films that were in some way striking that we nowadays associate with the canon of Weimar period films did not by definition belong to the most popular category of films.
That category included films that were commercially very successful during the Weimar period but subsequently sank into oblivion: An der schnen blauen Donau, Das tanzende Wien, Die Heilige und ihr Narr, Das Land des Lchelns and Bomben auf Monte Carlo. Co-existence did not mean that they were separated, however. One may suppose that there was a certain intertextual connection between both practices.
Artistically interesting films, even if they were attended by relatively small audiences, were probably partly responsible for raising the status of film in general. The same was true for the more popular Autorenfilme and large historical productions. Also, new developments in filming techniques had a great influence on the productions of conventional film makers. There were, for example, other approaches in the use of the camera, editing, set construction, effects of light and shadow, acting styles, the direction of mass scenes, exterior footage and after sound registration.
In a number of war films, the main emphasis was on communicating a historical narrative in a didactically effective way. Yet a large number of other war films were concerned with telling a captivating or exciting story about the adventures of individuals during the war. Censorship Interest in popular history, i. There was a big market for. As we have seen, the cinematographical representation of the past had already become popular in the first decades of cinemas existence.
This trend continued in the Weimar period. One of the largest historical spectacles, Madame Dubarry , about the French Revolution, was made by Ernst Lubitsch. Many more historical films would follow. Our main topic, however, is films that were concerned with the German past. The Fridericus Rex films dealt with the life and accomplishments of Frederick the Great. Besides the lives of Frederick II and Queen Luise , the period of the wars of liberation against Napoleon was also a subject greeted with enthusiasm.
Several dozens of such films on Prussia were released in the period, and they became instant commercial successes. Reactions to these films are more interesting than simply knowing that these films were made. These reactions are important indices to the political climate in which these and later or contemporary war films were screened and perceived. The popular Fridericus Rex films, for example, provoked major controversies and their screening sparked riots.
Leftist groups suggested that the screenings should be boycotted or banned altogether. It was because of the link that was made between the past and the present. The authoritarian power structure, imperialism and nationalism represented by Frederick the Great was associated with the monarchist rule of Wilhelm II, and the films were thus said to be monarchist propaganda.
Some saw the films as innocent entertainment, while others, especially leftists, took offence. Something similar happened with a current events documentary made towards the end of the war, Kolberg not to be confused with the Nazi film about the Napoleonic wars of liberation , about the history of this city, which would be handed over to the Poles in This film also contained footage of Field Marshall Von Hindenburg.
His appearance in the film sparked serious disturbances.
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The censorship authorities decided to ban the film unless the Hindenburg footage was removed. The Oberfilmprfstelle, which was given the task of revaluing the film, judged that this was an overreaction and passed the film without any alterations. The political sensitivity had to do with the propaganda function that film had served during the war.
The distrust caused by this continued after the war. After all, in a democratic society where various political party interests were in direct competition, film could again be used as a means of propaganda. Even if certain films, in this case historical dramas, could not be used as direct propaganda, they could very well be used to serve the interests of political parties. The Kinematograph wrote in Der Krieg ist gewesen. Ist der Propagandafilm damit begraben? Nur der Rahmen ist enger geworden.
Nicht mehr der Grosspolitik, der Parteipolitik wird der Film jetzt berall dienstbar gemacht. Auch in Deutschland. Film was thought to be a very powerful medium of manipulation, which became clear, among other things, from the fact that film, and to a much lesser extent theatre, art and literature, was subject to censorship. The introduction of the Film Act saw the establishment of two censorship agencies, the Filmprfstelle, operating from Berlin and Munich, and the Oberfilmprfstelle, with its office in Berlin. This latter agency consisted of a chairman and a committee of four persons who had a vote and who were appointed by the Interior Ministry for a period of three years.
The chairman was generally expected to have had legal training, had worked in public services or to have work experience in the courts. The committee members were recruited from the world of film, arts and literature always representing a minority and from general welfare, education and youth care. People from the film industry, education or other cultural agencies were usually allowed to attend these sessions.
However, the. At a time when the implementation of the Versailles Treaty was being negotiated, it was tactically unhelpful to offend the former enemy at the negotiating table or to furnish him with counterarguments by screening anti-foreign films or films critical of Germany. In addition, the authorities considered this necessary because so-called Hetzfilme were still being produced in foreign countries.
The press very attentively monitored these productions, even if they would appear in German cinemas much later, and then only in heavily censored form. The press also painstakingly reported about uncensored foreign screenings and about the protests against these by the Reichsverband deutscher Lichtspieltheaterbesitzer and the Spitzenorganisation der deutschen Filmindustrie.
Germany did not respond with films that depicted the former enemy in similarly negative or stereotype ways, but it protested via the appropriate channels, or tried to exert a positive influence on foreign countries by exporting aesthetically startling films and politically neutral German films. The military in film It turned out to be inevitable that films about a controversial past still so fresh in peoples memories were followed very closely.
Namenlose Helden and Volk in Not were among the first war films after to depict the battlefields. The latter was not the only war film to see the light of day in Nevertheless, these individual films initially did not cause much of a stir; this did not happen until after the screening of Unsere Emden, towards the end of Initially, the press focused on the phenomenon in its entirety, the phenomenon of the Militrfilme.
The period saw a boom of military films. Films about the First World War were only a fraction of the total number. Most of the films dealt with military life during the Prussian era or the Napoleonic wars: Soldatenfilme, Offizierstragdien, Knigsdramen. Rosenmontag, Aschermittwoch, Reveille, Der Totengrber eines Kaiserreichs about Redl , Annemarie und ihr Ulan are just some of the titles from a whole series of similar films. Some people were disturbed by the new trend and considered it a threat to republican values. In September , the left-liberal Berliner Tageblatt published a survey of military films that had been shown in the cinema over the previous eighteen months.
The most striking aspect, he found, was that none of these films had been banned by the censorship authorities. He was also very critical of the fact that so many high-ranking officers had been employed as advisors to the producers of these films, because dann weiss man zur Genge, aus welcher Richtung der Wind weht. The specialist periodicals also looked for an explanation of the latest trend. Kinematograph tried to put things into perspective by saying that these films were popular with only a small portion of the public.
Also, protests were not heard until the films were serialised in the cinema and began to dominate the entire screening programme. A psychological argument was presented by Ilse Zerbe writing for the moderate journal Der Film. Starting from the question why these films were so popular with certain audience groups, she reasoned as follows: Ist das nun lediglich eine pltzliche Geschmacksumkehrung zu der frheren Vorliebe fr Uniformen?
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She rejected this suggestion, however, because costume drama had been popular for years. Ist es die Rckkehr zur Freude an alter, rhytmisch vertrauter Militrmusik This could not be the only reason. Der Grund liegt also tiefer. Das Volk In addition, the future was also very uncertain. Einen hellen Schein aber braucht die Seele, um Elastizitt zu bewahren. Erdichtete Heldentaten fehlt in solcher Zeit der zndende Funke; also zurck zu Wirklich keiten der Vergangenheit. After all, what could bring more joy than der Durchmarsch vorn Soldaten mit Militrmusik! The army still embodied security and glory.
Audiences did not so much like military films as that they wanted to see a lebendiger Wiedergabe erhebender, nicht zu fern liegender Vergangenheit, in der noch persnlicher Mut, Tatkraft, Unternehmungsgeist, Stolz und Ehrgefhl ber. Schwachheit und Hinterlist triumphierten. It is clear that Zerbe expressed sentiments popular among the monarchist or otherwise conservative sections of the general public, unless she had meant to be ironical. Anyway, the article suggested that the films under consideration were serious in nature, while they were actually soldiers farces, so-called Soldatenhumoreske or Militrklamotten.
Military films nonetheless provoked many protests, which is why specialist periodicals called on cinema owners to change their rather one-sided programmes. Film was supposed to be above party politics and should strive for neutrality. This was not only a prescript, some people even considered it a matter of indisputable fact: Man darf nicht vergessen, dass der Film als Industrie absolut unpolitisch eingestellt ist, dass auch die Filme als Kunstgegenstand sich jedweder Tendenz zu enthalten haben und auch enthalten, wrote Der Film. The film industry fiercely defended the myth of neutrality and used it on every possible occasion.
When the union ADGB threatened to boycott theatres which showed military films, the industry called on the cinema owners to observe some distance from the successful genre. The dominant opinion was that these films were in themselves neutral, and that the leftist press was responsible for their politicisation. For example, Der Film named the article in the Berliner Tageblatt as one of the factors responsible for rousing public sentiment, while the moderate Reichsfilmblatt blamed socialist press in general.
A film like Keinen Pfennig der Frsten, for example, which took sides in the discussion surrounding the dispossession of lands and properties held by sovereigns Frstenenteignung was considered a clear instance of propaganda and rejected as a film for the general public by the left-liberal Film-Kurier. The social democrats soon responded to the military films. In and , two republican films were produced, Schmiede and Freies Volk, respectively, both of them made by the socialist director Martin Berger.
In a short article, the left-liberal Lichtbildbhne spoke out against party politics in film. In another part of the periodical, however, it said: Hat ein Film eine politische Tendenz, mit der jeder Deutsche einverstanden ist, weil es sich um keine Parteisache, sonder eine nationale Angelegenheit handelt, so ist natrlich in keiner Weise dagegen etwas einzuwenden. These words were used by the author to voice his approval for a propaganda film about the former German colonies, Ich hatt einen Kameraden!
The point of view expressed by Lichtbildbhne was very similar to statements made five years later by the right-wing Kinematograph which addressed its reader from the front page as follows: Sie wissen, dass wir die Behandlung nationaler Stoffe, wie etwa der Verfilmung der Nibelungen oder rein geschichtliche Filme wie Knigin Luise oder Fridericus Rex niemals als ein Politikum ansehen.
Following the scandal surrounding the Phoebus film company which produced navy propaganda films in exchange for covert financial support see chapter 5 the specialist press was rocked in by an outrage concerning film material about the First World War that had been put into circulation. In a front page article headlined Wir verlangen Aufklrung, the Lichtbildbhne, in an indignant tone, started a discussion about film material from the war being used by politically suspect right-wing radical circles connected with Stahlhelm.
Also Filme, die das ganze Volk interessierten und nicht einseitig politischen Tendenzen dienstbar gemacht werden sollten. Shortly after the war, when Bufa went from the Defence Ministry to the Foreign Ministry and eventually became a much reduced film department at the Interior Ministry, several films had been given for safekeeping to the Vaterlndischen Film-Gesellschaft. This agency was also given permission to lend out films, sporadically and under very strict conditions without commercial intent and only for educational purposes for screening at private gatherings. According to the magazine, these conditions were not met.
Several days later, a group of former Bufa cameramen who had worked at the front reacted with indignation to the abuse of their images. Although the discussion was sparked by the Fridericus Rex films and the military films that followed, it also took place at a time when political controversy was running high on account of a number of issues: the death of social-democrat president, Friedrich Ebert, and the election of the former war hero and monarchist, Paul von Hindenburg, as the president of the Reich; the flag decree; the referendum about the dispossession of sovereign lands and properties; the Phoebus scandal; and the screening of Eisensteins Russian propaganda film Potemkin and the ban and subsequent lifting of the ban.
Discussions about politics and film never fell completely silent. This meant that with respect to war films, German and foreign critics remained very much on their guard. From relative stability to crisis Despite the fact that the second half of the s remained full of unrest, it was nevertheless the most stable period of the republic. This was due to political and economic factors, such as the election of Paul von Hindenburg as president of the republic. The embodiment of German heroism during the First World War and new political beacon for the right had been put forward as a candidate for the second round by the right-wing parties.
Von Hindenburgs victory had made the republic more acceptable to the anti-republican, monarchist and vindictive right-wing parties. Until , the country would no longer be governed by a centre-left cabinet the Weimarer Koalition but, with only a short interruption, by a centre-right coalition. This contributed to political stability during this period. The tide also turned with respect to the economy. After the crisis, the success of the currency reform checked inflation and, buoyed up by American loans and the Dawes plan, the German economy was back on track. The economic aid programmes contained regulatory provisions about German reparations as laid down in the Versailles Treaty.
In close correlation with this, Gustav Stresemann achieved substantial successes with his foreign policy. Germany was accepted as a member of the League of Nations and concluded security pacts which guaranteed its western borders. These developments marked a period that saw Germany slowly emerge from international isolation. Political and economic stability did not mean, however, that there were no conflicts in Germany. Conflicts had only temporarily disappeared below the surface and stability was only relative.
This situation was reflected in the film industry. At first there was a downswing which forced many companies to close. After the surge of inflation, German films had become considerably more expensive abroad, causing exports on which Germany depended to drop. Another reason for company shutdowns was the increase in the number of mergers in production, distribution and screening sectors.
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In the end, the German film market also suffered heavily from American competition. American movies were popular with the general public and dominated the cinema screens. Protectionist quota regulations requiring production companies to match every American production shown in Germany with a domestic production provided an economic impulse but they also resulted in the production of many mediocre films. All in all, German film production totalled between and annually during this period.
In March , the film industry was rocked by a drastic change: to stave off bankruptcy, the largest film company in Germany, Ufa, was taken over by Alfred Hugenberg, industrial tycoon, newspaper magnate and, from onwards, chairman of the Deutsche Nationale Volkspartei or DNVP. Alfred Hugenberg, his managing director Ludwig Klitszch and production manager Erich Pommer, brought back from Hollywood, decided to move into a new direction.
Expensive experiments such as Murnaus Faust and Langs Metropolis could no longer be allowed. Ufa decided to commit to mediocrity. One of the first films to be premiered after the changing of the guard was the first part of the epic Der Weltkrieg! However prominent Ufas role in Weimar cinema was, the company only released two other war films after the two Weltkrieg films: Heimkehr and Morgenrot. Die literarische Welt. Er bekmpft den nationalistischen und militaristischen Filmkitsch. As did most other organisations and producers with left leanings, the Volksverband would eventually get the worst of it.
At any rate, its efforts achieved nothing to halt the renewed rise in the production of war films that occurred in the early thirties. The production of the anti-war film, Westfront G. Pabst, , by the leftist production company Nero-Film can in a sense be seen as one of the very few answers to the rise of war films. The relative political and economic stability ended around The death of Gustav Stresemann who, as Foreign Minister between and had been one of Germanys most important advocates abroad, brought an end to the peaceful revision of the Versailles Treaty. The so-called Young-plan provided new American loans so that Germany could continue to meet its reparation requirements.
Led by Alfred Hugenberg, the DNVP and the Stahlhelm organisation of veterans joined forces in a committee against ratification of the plan. They said that foreign support would only bring Germany in a position of dependence. The action failed, but it made Adolf Hitler a household name, which was an important step towards further consolidation of his party. Late , the international economic crisis also reached Germany. The effect on the German film industry was devastating. In , film production had sunk to films. This development was supervised by Tobis-Klangfilm, a merger of two competing companies established in Die letzten Tage vor dem Weltbrand Richard Oswald, The ear-splitting noise of the front could first be heard in Westfront , which made a huge impression on audiences for that reason alone.
The final phase of the republic was marked by economic as well as political crisis. As part of a strategy devised by Schleicher and Von Hindenburg to end the republic, Zentrum politician Heinrich Brning was found willing to lead a presidential minority cabinet. Article 48 of the Constitution, which had been written earlier, allowed a great concentration of political power with the president of the Reich, ultimately to the detriment of parliament, the Reichstag.
Hindenburg used the article as an instrument to install new cabinets or appoint chancellors without having to deal with parliament. This period was marked by the infamous presidential cabinets March May which would lead to the dismantling and ultimate dissolution of the German democratic order and the annihilation of the opposition.
As a veteran with strongly vindictive sentiments, Brning did his utmost to get the reparations imposed by the allied powers cancelled. Even before this was achieved, he lost Von Hindenburgs support, partly because of his economic and financial policies, and was replaced by Franz von Papen at the end of May The countrys two major anti-democratic movements became the largest, if not the most powerful parties in Germany. There could of course not be any question of co-operation between the two.
The same was true for the other parties. Hitlers party was watched very closely by other right-wing parties and tolerated at best, while the weak social democrats and the communists were like cats and dogs.
The polarisation was intensified even further by the Reichstag elections of 31 July Again, the KPD won considerably. The SA now continued its reign of terror in the streets with a vengeance. The street violence was mainly targeted at the communists, who were not exactly innocent bystanders themselves. In the summer of , no less than 18 people were killed and 68 injured in street fights in Hamburgs Altona district the so-called Altonaer Blutsonntag. Something of this terror had emerged earlier in Berlin during screenings of Lewis Milestones All quiet on the Western front December Joseph Goebbels and his henchmen had set off stink-bombs and released white mice to frighten the audience and scare off potential spectators.
This resulted in counter demonstrations.
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At the end of the day, however, all this agitation failed to produce the desired effect. The authorities first banned demonstrations, and then the film. In addition to the familiar motive of disturbing public order, defiling German honour and an overzealous propagation of pacifism were also cited as reasons for banning the film. More than eighteen months later, the film was finally banned by the National Socialists. In these crisis-ridden final years of the republic, interest in the war past surged again.
Also, this interest was much more explicit in the early thirties than it had been around The reason was that, from onwards, more war films were produced Scapa Flow, Somme, Westfront , This upsurge in interest in the war also left its mark on the theatre. As far as literature is concerned, Hans-Harald Mller indicates in his study of the period that between and more than two hundred books were published that dealt with the war, while no more than one hundred war books appeared in the ten years preceding that period.
Various authors have pointed to the economic crisis and the political instability as important factors. How these social and cultural contexts found their way into the films will emerge in the course of this study. Reactions in contemporary criticism clearly show how controversial representations of the war past could still be, ten or fifteen years after it took place. IX, S. Einklebung auf Vorsatz, sonst gutes Exemplar. Herausgegeben von Lothar Gall.
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